Health in Mali, one of the world’s poorest nations, is greatly affected by poverty, malnutrition, and inadequate hygiene and sanitation. Mali's health and development indicators rank among the worst in the world. In 2000, only 62-65% of the population was estimated to have access to safe drinking water and only 69% to sanitation services of some kind; only 8% was estimated to have access to modern sanitation facilities. Only 20% of the nation’s villages and livestock watering holes had modern water facilities.
Mali is dependent on international development organisations and foreign missionary groups for much of its health care. In 2001 general government expenditures on health constituted 6.8% of total general government expenditures and 4.3% of gross domestic product (GDP), totalling only about $4 per capita at an average exchange rate.
Medical facilities in Mali are very limited, especially outside of Bamako, and medicines are in short supply. There were only five physicians per 100,000 inhabitants in the 1990s and 24 hospital beds per 100,000 in 1998. In 1999 only 36% of Malians were estimated to have access to health services within a 5-km radius. There are three major public hospitals in the greater Bamako region, and in 2009 the government of Mali aided by the government of China began construction of a fourth in Missabougou quarter, Bamako, to be named Hôpital du Mali.
Malians’ utilisation of basic health services associated with antenatal, birth and infant care are low by global standards, although similar to regional norms. Slightly less than half of all Malian births are attended by skilled healthcare personnel.
Malaria and other arthropod-borne diseases are prevalent in Mali, as are a number of infectious diseases such as cholera, hepatitis, meningitis and tuberculosis. Mali’s population also suffers from a high rate of child malnutrition and a low rate of immunisation for childhood diseases such as measles.
There were an estimated 100,000 cases of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in 2007, and an estimated 1.5% of the adult population was afflicted with HIV/AIDS that year, among the lowest rates in Sub-Saharan Africa